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Diana Mutz, professor of political science and communication, testified as an expert witness last Friday in a trial on the constitutionality of Pennsylvania’s voter identification law.

While its proponents say that the 2012 law —which requires voters to have a valid photo ID, such as a Pennsylvania drivers license, when going to the polls — will limit voter fraud, many oppose the law because it will disproportionately affect minority, elderly and disabled potential voters.

Related: Voter ID law did not affect primaries

Mutz argued that the state was unclear on the details of presenting identification before voting, and that Pennsylvania’s 2012 multimedia campaign to educate voters about the new law was confusing.

Specifically, she called the state’s “Show It” ads — commercials in which people held up photo ID cards — confusing, because “to say ‘show it’ presumes you have it,” the Associated Press reported.

Mutz also said that while Pennsylvania had put measures in place to educate voters about the law, it had made no meaningful attempts to make sure the efforts were working.

In response, Pennsylvania argued that it has actually made more significant efforts than other states with similar laws.

Mutz has declined to comment on the trial until after it is over.

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